Artificial Intelligence

AI in healthcare is the use of complex algorithms and software to emulate human cognition in the analysis of complicated medical data. Specifically, AI is the ability of computer algorithms to approximate conclusions without direct human input.


the use of control systems and information technologies to reduce the need for human work in the production of goods and services.

Biometric Data

‘Biometrics’ describes the physiological and behavioral characteristics of individuals. This could be fingerprints, voice, face, retina and iris patterns, hand geometry, gait or DNA profiles. – Privacy International

Business Associates

A “business associate” is a person or entity that performs certain functions or activities that involve the use or disclosure of protected health information on behalf of, or provides services to, a covered entity. Business associates may include third party claims processors, attorneys for a healthcare provider, or consultants.

Census Tract

“Census Tracts are small, relatively permanent statistical subdivisions of a county or equivalent entity that are updated by local participants prior to each decennial census as part of the Census Bureau’s Participant Statistical Areas Program…Census tracts generally have a population size between 1,200 and 8,000 people, with an optimum size of 4,000 people.” – U.S. Census

Common Rule

Also known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, the Common Rule was published in 1991 and codified in separate regulations by 15 Federal departments and agencies. For all participating departments and agencies the Common Rule outlines the basic provisions for IRBs, informed consent, and Assurances of Compliance. Human subject research conducted or supported by each federal department/agency is governed by the regulations of that department/agency. The head of that department/agency retains final judgment as to whether a particular activity it conducts or supports is covered by the Common Rule. – HHS

Community Based Organizations

Community-based organizations (CBOs) work at the local level to meet community needs. They include social service agencies, nonprofit organizations, and formal and informal community groups, like neighborhood groups or recreational or special-interest clubs. Depending on the nature of their work, a CBO’s stakeholders may include volunteers, members, clients, supporters, patrons, program participants, and event attendees. – CDC

Covered Entities

The HIPAA privacy rule only applies to a select group of health-related organizations including health plans, health care clearinghouses, and certain health care providers.

Health plans include insurance companies, health maintenance organizations (HMOs), employer sponsored health plans, and government claims programs (Medicare, Medicaid, etc).

Health care providers including doctors, clinics, psychologists, dentists, chiropractors, nurisng homes, and pharmacies that submit claims electronically.

Data Minimization

the goal of using the minimal amount of data for a particular purpose

Data Use Agreement

A data use agreement (DUA) is an agreement that is required under the Privacy Rule and must be entered into before there is any use or disclosure of a limited data set…to an outside institution or party. – Stanford University Privacy Office